Climate Change Impact on Sea Ice Decline. In the Arctic, temperature has increased at twice the rate as the rest of the globe, and could increase by another 8. The warming atmosphere along with new weather pattern extremes is causing Arctic sea ice to melt at an alarming rate—1. Arctic will be ice- free by 2. The impacts of dwindling ice cover in the Arctic are far- reaching, from species endangerment to enhanced global warming, to the weakening or shut- down of global ocean circulation. In today's climate regime, sea ice has been observed as far south as Bohai Bay in China—a latitude comparable to the Mediterranean Sea. Sea ice begins to form when water temperature dips just below freezing, at around - 1.
It grows into small sheets that look like pancakes, and eventually merge together to form large ice floes which can span miles. As the ice forms, it expels the salt, which increases the density of the surrounding water and thus plays a critical role in global ocean circulation. Figure 1. Bright white sea ice reflects almost all of the incoming solar radiation back to space, whereas the dark ocean surface absorbs nearly all of it. Image source: Stephen Hudson / Norsk Polarinstitutt.
Aaroniero Arruruerie ( Find out how Arctic sea ice is changing and why it matters. Arctic sea ice keeps the polar regions cool and helps moderate global climate. Sunny Sunny Song Download Djmaza here.
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Winter temperature has increased more than summer temperature, which is a trend that is expected to continue. While some have suggested that these variations in temperature and associated sea ice melt are a natural cycle, recent research tells us that the Arctic was in a 2,0. Sea ice is generally moderated by sunlight—it grows in the winter and melts in the summer—but there are other factors at play in the decline of ice in the Arctic Ocean. Warm ocean currents travel north from the equator and usher in warmer and warmer water, making sea ice growth difficult. Weather patterns over the high mid- latitudes and the Arctic can also affect sea ice growth. Under normal climate conditions, cold air is confined to the Arctic by the polar vortex winds, which circle counter- clockwise around the North Pole.
As sea ice coverage decreases, the Arctic warms, high pressure builds, and the polar vortex weakens, sending cold air is spilling southward into the mid- latitudes, bringing record cold and fierce snowstorms. At the same time, warm air will flowing into the Arctic to replace the cold air spilling south, which drives more sea ice loss.
This reversal could be partially driven by sea ice loss, and so is expected to surface more often in the coming years. The primary role that sea ice plays in global climate its ability to efficiently reflect the Sun's radiation. This property is called .
The albedo of snow- covered sea ice is 0. Sun's radiation. Just like wearing a white shirt will keep you cool when you're out in the Sun, the sea ice covering the Arctic keeps the thermostat low. The ocean surface, however, is almost black, and it only reflects 1. After something absorbs sunlight, it emits heat.
Less sea ice and more ocean surface will lead to a warmer Arctic, and a warmer climate. Observed Sea Ice Melt. Satellite data show that since the late 1.
September Arctic sea ice extent has decreased by about 1. What's especially alarming is the decrease in multi- year ice. Sea ice is classified by age, usually as . While new ice is very shallow, multi- year ice can grow to be quite thick, typically between 6 and 1. A remarkable study was published in 2.
Arctic. In 1. 98. When they surveyed the Arctic again in 2. Likewise, sea ice thickness and volume have decreased markedly since the beginning of the satellite era. Figure 2. September Arctic sea ice extent. Sea ice extent measurements are made with satellite instruments, and are given in millions of square kilometers. Sea ice measurements are available within the satellite era, and are shown here from 1. Data source: National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Recent years have set a number of sea ice records in the Arctic. The summer of 2. 00. Unusually strong high pressure over the Arctic led to clear skies and plenty of sunshine.
The polar vortex weakened, injecting large amounts of warm air into the Arctic. Sea ice loss doubled to 3. National Snow and Ice Data Center. In one year, as much ice was lost as in the previous 2. In 2. 01. 1, the University of Bremen reported that sea ice had reached a new all- time low on September 8th, and was 2.
Extraordinary melting of sea ice in the Arctic in 2. September 2. 00. 7. The new sea ice record was set on August 2. National Snow and Ice Data Center. A comprehensive collection of sea ice graphs shows the full story.
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What is Richter Magnitude? Short answer. Seismologists use a Magnitude scale to express the seismic energy.
Can cause serious damage over larger areas. Can cause serious damage in areas several.
Richter's most valuable contributions was to recognize. The records had to be obtained from a specific kind of instrument.
Wood- Anderson seismograph. The distance factor comes from a table that. Richter's (1. 95. Elementary Seismology.
The equation behind this nomogram, used by. Richter in Southern California, is. Thus after you measure the wave amplitude. S- P time. difference. It is called. the moment magnitude, and it comes from the seismic moment. A torque is a force that changes the angular momentum. It is defined as the force times the distance from the center of rotation.
Earthquakes are caused by internal torques, from the interactions. After some. rather complicated mathematics, it can be shown that the moment of an. The formula above, for the moment of an earthquake, is fundamental. Double Spring Flat. Gardnerville. Richter, working with Dr.
Beno. Gutenberg, early on developed a relationship between magnitude and. Their relationship is. ES = 1. 1. 8 + 1. Mgiving the energy ES in ergs from the magnitude. M. Note that ES is not the total ``intrinsic''.
It is only the amount radiated from. Hiroo Kanamori came up with a relationship. It gives. Energy = (Moment)/2. For this moment is in units of dyne- cm, and energy is in units of ergs. Previous: Seismic Waves - -- . Next: Earthquake Effects in Kobe, Japan.
The Meaning of Stairs in a Dream. Dreams of stairs, staircases, lifts or escalators are often very confusing, and can make us feel like we have followed a lot of twists and turns in our mind all night, only to wake and realise we have not arrived anywhere! But as with all dreamwork, only you know the entire story of your life, and it is worth remembering that “down” does not equate with “bad.”.
Conversely, new shiny stairs may be a new issue or something you have not given much thought to yet. Try to “step back” from your sense of personal involvement, and describe your dream in very basic words, and then list your emotions.